Neutrophils are type of white blood cell that are found in the blood. Absolute Neutrophil Count (ANC) gives a measure of neutrophils in the blood. The role of neutrophils in the blood is to fight infections by getting rid of bacteria causing diseases and other foreign substances present in the body.
The normal level of neutrophils in the blood is estimated to be between 1500 and 8000 millimeter cubed. When blood work is done and the number of neutrophils is higher than 8000 mm3, this is referred to as Absolute Neutrophil Count high. There are several factors that can lead to an Absolute Neutrophil Count High.
One of the factors that contribute to Absolute Neutrophil Count High is too much stress on the body. This can be from too much exercise, being nervous or seizures. The neutrophils increase in number in order to ensure the body keeps up with the changes. This ensures the body is protected.
Infection is also a contributor to Absolute Neutrophil Count High. This is because, since neutrophils are the highest in number among white blood cells, they tend to increase in number in order to fight off infections in the body. Such infections may arise due to injury where the body becomes exposed to external foreign materials, heart attacks or bacterial infections.
Kidney failure is also known to cause high ANC. Kidneys are organs that are responsible for removing waste material from the blood. When they fail to function, these waste materials are left in the blood since the kidneys are unable to perform their function of excretion. For this reason neutrophil count increases to indicate there is a problem.
Another contributor to high ANC is eclampsia. This is a condition that is found in pregnant women who have previously diagnosed with high blood pressure. The condition results in the woman having seizures and comas. This results in an increased number of neutrophils that fight to control the condition.
Cancer can also lead to a high neutrophil count. This is because cancer tends to increase the rate of multiplication and growth of cells. Being cells, neutrophils respond to this and increase rapidly in number.
Hemolytic anemia is another cause of high neutrophil counts. Red blood cells play the role of carrying oxygen into the blood. When someone has hemolytic anemia, this means that their red blood cells have been destroyed. When this happens, there is a substantial increase in neutrophils as they sense a change in the normal functioning of the body.
Polycythemia Vera is a condition whose cause has not been identified yet. However, this condition leads to an increase in the number of red blood cells in the body in combination with increase in number of other cells. Neutrophils are among the cells that are affected by this condition.
Medications can also lead to increased number of neutrophils. Some examples of such medications are Lithium Carbonate which is used to control over excitement and corticosteroids which are used to control the amount of nutrients in the body and the amount of water in urine.